If zinc oxide nanoparticles produce ROS, they can damage the skin and cannot be used as sun screen. [89] have shown that zinc oxide nanoparticles of 8-nm diameter inhibited the growth of S. aureus, E. coli, and B. subtilis. Chemosphere 71:1308–1316, Elster C, Fourest E, Baudin F, Larsen K, Cusack S, Ruigrok RW (1994) A small percentage of influenza virus M1 protein contains zinc but zinc does not influence in vitro M1 RNA interaction. Zinc nanoparticles or zinc oxide nanoparticles of extremely low concentration cannot cause toxicity in human system. (gram negative) and B. subtilis (gram positive) and (b) halophiles: halophilic bacterium sp. Although zinc oxide nanoparticles are stable, they have been further stabilized by coating them with different polymers such as polyvinyl pyrolidone (PVP), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), poly (α, γ, l-glutamic acid) (PGA), polyethylene glycol (PEG), chitosan, and dextran [97, 98]. Xie et al. Nano Lett 6:1794–1807, Long TC, Saleh N, Tilton RD, Lowry GV, Veronesi B (2006) Titanium dioxide (P25) produces reactive oxygen species in immortalized brain microglia (BV2): implications for nanoparticle neurotoxicity. The authors are thankful to publishers for the permission to adopt the table and figures in this review. Anti-bacterial activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles against many other bacteria has also been reported [1, 5, 114, 115]. J Appl Phys 98:041301, Klingshirn C ZnO: from basics towards applications. The characteristic properties of nanoparticles and their impact on biological functions are entirely different from those of the bulk material [80]. In some cases, the cell cleavage of the microbes has not been noticed, but the zinc oxide nanoparticles can yet be seen entering the inner cell wall (Fig. Properties of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Activity Against Microbes. The SEM and TEM images have shown that zinc oxide nanoparticles damage the bacterial cell wall [55, 62] and increase permeability followed by their accumulation in E. coli preventing their multiplication [63]. oxide nanoparticles by light, which penetrate the bacterial cell wall via diffusion. After a 12-h treatment (0.5 mg/ml), C. jejuni was found to be extremely sensitive and cells transformed from spiral shape to coccoid forms. 442–446, Shen L, Zhang H, Guo S (2009) Control on the morphologies of tetrapod ZnO nanocrystals. Raghupathi et al. Nano Res Lett 11:400, Siddiqi KS, Husen A (2016) Green synthesis, characterization and uses of palladium/platinum nanoparticles. They enhance intracellular bacterial killing by inducing ROS production. [104] showed that in BEAS-2B cells, uptake of zinc oxide nanoparticles is the main mechanism of zinc accumulation. However, human skin is an effective barrier to ZnO nanoparticles, for example when used as a sunscreen, unless abrasions occur. The PEG starch-coated nanorods/nanoparticles do not damage the healthy cells. The wound generally contains P. aeruginosa, S. intermedicus, and S. hyicus which were also identified from the swab of mice wound and successfully treated with chitosan zinc oxide bandage in about 3 weeks [100]. Mater Chem Phys 114:580–583, Ding Y, Wang ZL (2009) Structures of planar defects in ZnO nanobelts and nanowires. As a consequence of it, the intracellular material leaks out leading to cell death, regardless of the thickness of bacterial cell wall. Int J Nanomedicine 7:6003–6009, Yamamoto O (2013) Influence of particle size on the antibacterial activity of zinc oxide. There occurs a drastic change in cell morphology of E. coli surface which can be seen from the SEM images of bacteria before and after their exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles [84]. ACS Nano 6:4921–4930, Raffi M, Hussain F, Bhatti TM, Akhter JI, Hameed A, Hasan MM (2008) Antibacterial characterization of silver nanoparticles against E. Coli ATCC-15224. Sci Total Environ 407:3070–3072, Wang C, Lu J, Zhou L, Li J, Xu J, Li W, Zhang L, Zhong X, Wang T (2016) Effects of long-term exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles on development, zinc metabolism and biodistribution of minerals (Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn) in mice. Chiang et al. The basic mechanism of bactericidal nature of ZnO nanoparticles includes physical contact between ZnO nanoparticles and the bacterial cell wall, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as free radicals and release of … The exact physical and chemical properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles depend on the different ways they are synthesized. However, it is true that zinc oxide can absorb sun light and help in cleaving water molecules which may combine in many ways to give oxygen. Nanomedicine 7:184–192, Lovric J, Cho SJ, Winnik FM, Maysinger D (2005) Unmodified cadmium telluride quantum dots induce reactive oxygen species formation leading to multiple organelle damage and cell death. These nanoparticles disrupt biofilm formation and inhibit hemolysis by hemolysin toxin produced by pathogens. [1], ZnO nanoparticles are believed to be one of the three most produced nanomaterials, along with titanium dioxide nanoparticles and silicon dioxide nanoparticles. Chemical properties Pure ZnO is a white powder, but in nature it occurs as the rare mineral zincite, which usually contains manganese and other impurities that confer a yellow to red color. BioMed Res Inter 2017:5746768, Wang TX, Lou TJ (2008) Solvothermal synthesis and photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanorods and nanorod assemblies from ZnO2 nanoparticles. [87] have exclusively explored the size effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on bacterial and human cell toxicity. Hong-Yan Shi, Bin Deng, Sheng-Liang Zhong, Lei Wang, An-Wu Xu, Synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles with strong, tunable and stable visible light emission by solid-state transformation of Zn(ii)–organic coordination polymers, Journal of Materials Chemistry, 10.1039/c1jm10809c, 21, 33, (12309), (2011). The zinc oxide nanoparticles have been shown to be cytotoxic to different primary immune-competent cells. Emerging Technol.—Nanoelectron pp. Zinc oxide nanoparticles are the semiconductor materials having band gap energy 3.37 eV and very large excitation binding energy (60meV) at room temperature. These particles were noticed in the cytoplasm of the cells in the form of electron dense clusters, which are further observed to be enclosed by vesicles, while zinc oxide nanoparticles were not found in untreated control cells. J Biomed Mater Res B 93B:557–561, Baek YW, An YJ (2011) Microbial toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles (CuO, NiO, ZnO, and Sb2O3) to Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Streptococcus aureus. In addition, silica-coated ZnO nanoparticles. also showed excellent UV shielding ability and visible light transparency. On the contrary, Gilbert et al. [5], "Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles", "Inventory of Engineered Nanoparticle-Containing Consumer Products Available in the Singapore Retail Market and Likelihood of Release into the Aquatic Environment", "Industrial production quantities and uses of ten engineered nanomaterials in Europe and the world", "Engineered Nanoparticles in Consumer Products: Understanding a New Ingredient", "Nanotechnology in the real world: Redeveloping the nanomaterial consumer products inventory", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Zinc_oxide_nanoparticle&oldid=993976941, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 13 December 2020, at 14:36. The properties of flowable resin composites containing 0–5 wt.% nano-ZnO are investigated using different tests: A. Of all natural and synthetic wound dressing materials, the chitosan hydrogel microporous bandages laced with zinc oxide nanoparticles developed by Kumar et al. [79] have reported that dissociation of zinc oxide nanoparticles results in destruction of cellular Zn homeostasis. Their apoptosis and genotoxic potential in human liver cells and cellular toxicity has been studied. Although there is significant impact of zinc oxide nanoparticles on both the aquatic and terrestrial microorganisms and human system, it is yet to be established whether it is due to nanoparticles alone or is a combined effect of the zinc oxide nanoparticles and Zn2+ ions [55, 106, 109, 119]. Intradermal administration of zinc oxide nanoparticles was found to significantly reduce the skin infection and inflammation in mice and also improved infected skin architecture. Nanotoxicology 7:402–416, Gilbert B, Fakra SC, Xia T, Pokhrel S, Mädler L, Nel AE (2012) The fate of ZnO nanoparticles administered to human bronchial epithelial cells. It has also been indicated from the viable cell determination during the exposure of bacterial cells to zinc oxide nanoparticles that the number of cells recovered decreased significantly with decrease in size of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Int J Nanomedicine 7:845–857, Leung YH, Xu X, Ma APY, Liu F, Ng AMC, Shen Z, Gethings LA, Guo MY, Djurišić AB, Lee PKH, Lee HK, Chan WK, Leung FCC (2016) Toxicity of ZnO and TiO2 to Escherichia coli cells. Methods. 7H2O. It was also noted that the size of zinc oxide nanoparticles ranging between 50 and 500 nm have identical effect on bacterial growth inhibition. Zinc metal is an essential trace element for man, animal, plant, and bacterial growth while zinc oxide nanoparticles are toxic to many fungi, viruses, and bacteria. Metal oxide nanoparticles induce ROS production and put the cells under oxidative stress causing damage to cellular components, i.e., lipids, proteins, and DNA [67,68,69]. Press of Harvard University Press, Belknap, Ozgur U, Ya IA, Liu C, Teke A, Reshchikov MA, Doğan S, Avrutin V, Cho SJ, Morkoç H (2005) A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices. Animal studies have indicated an increase in pulmonary inflammation, oxidative stress, etc. [90] have highlighted the difference of cytotoxicity between particle size and different sensitivity of cells toward the particles of the same composition. [118] have also shown the influence of zinc oxide nanoparticles and silver nanoparticles on the growth, membrane structure, and their accumulation in cytoplasm of (a) mesophiles: Enterobacter sp. It has also been supported by an increase in the infectious pancreatic necrosis virus by 69.6% when treated with 10 mg/L of Zn [46]. Mater Tod 7:26–33, Wang ZL (2004) Zinc oxide nanostructures: growth, properties and applications. Nano Lett 6:866–870, Stoimenov PK, Klinger RL, Marchin GL, Klabunde KJ (2002) Metal oxide nanoparticles as bactericidal agents. The powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, selected-area electron diffraction, UV-vis optical absorption, and photoluminescence spectroscopy analyses. 5c, d). Premanathan et al. Moreover, these coccoid cells remained intact and possessed sheathed polar flagella. These pathogens were completely destroyed when incubated for 24 h with 1000 μg/ml of zinc oxide nanoparticles. J Nutr 130:1421S–1423S, Hiller JM, Perlmutter A (1971) Effect of zinc on viral-host interactions in a rainbow trout cell line, RTG-2. Antibacterial activity may be catalyzed by sunlight, but hopefully, it can prevent the formation of ROS. Siddiqi, K.S., ur Rahman, A., Tajuddin et al. However, the production of H2O2 and its involvement in the activation of nanoparticles cannot be ignored. The inadvertent use of zinc oxide nanoparticles may sometime adversely affect the living system. TEM images of Escherichia coli (a), zinc oxide nanoparticles with E. coli at different stages (b and inset), Klebsiella pneumoniae (c), and zinc oxide nanoparticles with K. pneumoniae (d and inset) [120]. on respiratory exposure to nanoparticles [94]. 1). [120] have shown that when zinc oxide nanoparticles are ingested, their surface area is increased followed by increased absorption and interaction with both the pathogens and the enzymes. They are nontoxic to the cells because they are already present in our body for the healing of injury. Nanoparticle zinc oxide, ZnO, is a form of zinc oxide where the compound is formed into individual particles as small as 20 nanometers in diameter. AH and KSS analyzed these data and wrote this review paper. The impact of nanoparticles on the growth of bacteria and viruses largely depends on particle size, shape, concentration, agglomeration, colloidal formulation, and pH of the media [106,107,108]. Since zinc oxide nanoparticles up to a concentration of 100 μg/ml are harmless to normal body cells, they can be used as an alternative to antibiotics. Thus, they prevent HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection in vitro. J Appl Microbiol 107:1193–1201, Dutta RK, Sharma PK, Bhargave R, Kumar N, Pandey AC (2010) Differential susceptibility of Escherichia coli cells toward transition metal-doped and matrix-embedded ZnO nanoparticles. Globally, bacterial infections are recognized as serious health issue. Zinc oxide nanoparticles, therefore, induce toxicity through apoptosis. It is also essential that the zinc/zinc oxide nanoparticles must not be toxic to human being since they are toxic to T cells above 5 mM [85] and to neuroblastoma cells above 1.2 mM [86]. They are used because they effectively absorb ultraviolet light, but possess a large enough bandgap to be completely transparent to visible light. Apoptosis 17:852–870, Azam A, Ahmed AS, Oves M, Khan MS, Habib SS, Memic A (2012) Antimicrobial activity of metal oxide nanoparticles against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria: a comparative study. Google Scholar, Husen A, Siddiqi KS (2014) Plants and microbes assisted selenium nanoparticles: characterization and application. [96] have reported the preparation of a novel antimicrobial composite material hydrogel by mixing a biocompatible poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) with zinc oxide nanoparticles. Antibacterial activity and/or zone of inhibition produced by zinc oxide nanoparticles against gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains namely a Escherichia coli, b Staphylococcus aureus, c Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and d Bacillus subtilis [82]. Nano Res Lett 11:98, Siddiqi KS, Husen A (2016) Fabrication of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles by algae and their toxic effects. (gram positive) and Marinobacter sp. It was further confirmed by measuring glutathione depletion, malondialdehyde production, superoxide dismutase inhibition, and ROS generation. [56] have demonstrated that ROS generation is directly proportional to the concentration of zinc oxide powder. [100] are highly effective in treating burns, wounds, and diabetic foot ulcers. [82] have reported that the antimicrobial activity against both gram-negative (E. coli and P. aeruginosa) and gram-positive (S. and Bacillus subtilis) bacteria increased with increase in surface-to-volume ratio due to a decrease in particle size of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles is concentration and solubility dependent. The generation of ROS through photocatalysis is also a reason of antibacterial activity [62, 112]. Zinc Oxide. J Ferment Bioeng 86:521–522, Lin D, Xing B (2007) Phytotoxicity of nanoparticles: inhibition of seed germination and root growth. Biochim Biophys Acta 1362:116–127, Zhang L, Jiang Y, Ding Y, Povey M, York D (2007) Investigation into the antibacterial behaviour of suspensions of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO nanofluids). Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, 202002, India, Department of Saidla (Unani Pharmacy), Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, 202002, India, Department of Biology, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, University of Gondar, P.O. PLoS One 11:e0164434, Li CH, Shen CC, Cheng YW, Huang SH, Wu CC, Kao CC, Liao JW, Kang JJ (2012) Organ biodistribution, clearance, and genotoxicity of orally administered zinc oxide nanoparticles in mice. Part Fibre Toxicol 8:27, Tuomela S, Autio R, Buerki-Thurnherr T, Arslan O, Kunzmann A, Andersson-Willman B, Wick P, Mathur S, Scheynius A, Krug HF, Fadeel B, Lahesmaa R (2013) Gene expression profiling of immune-competent human cells exposed to engineered zinc oxide or titanium dioxide nanoparticles. However, SEM image of the untreated cells clearly showed spiral shapes (Fig. J Mater Sci Mater Med 15:847–851, Premanathan M, Karthikeyan K, Jeyasubramanian K, Manivannan G (2011) Selective toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles toward Gram-positive bacteria and cancer cells by apoptosis through lipid peroxidation. Bioresour Technol 102:1516–1520, Jones N, Ray B, Ranjit KT, Manna AC (2008) Antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticle suspensions on a broad spectrum of microorganisms. Reduce the properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles infection and inflammation in mice and also improved infected skin architecture jurisdictional claims published! Penetrate the bacterial cell membrane and then permeate into it [ 64 ] penetrate... Reaction to form Zn2+ and zinc oxide nanoparticles by light, the intracellular leaks... The toxicology of metals, 4th edn the different ways they are exposed to UV light for ;. Consequently alter their antimicrobial efficiency relationship between antibacterial activity than microscale particles 83. By measuring glutathione depletion, malondialdehyde production, superoxide dismutase inhibition, and functional.: properties and applications mater Chem Phys 114:580–583, Ding Y, Wang ZL properties of zinc oxide nanoparticles... Actually coordinated with the protein molecules through the lone pair of electrons on the atom! 125 mg/l ) suspension released 6.8 mg/l of Zn2+ and their activity against microbes changed at which... As powders and dispersions them with UV radiation hydrophilic polymer of low cost ah and KSS analyzed these data wrote! Further confirmed by measuring glutathione depletion, malondialdehyde production, superoxide dismutase inhibition, and gathered... Substantial decrease in these parameters and accumulation of nanoparticles and the cell membrane was ruptured leading to cell death regardless! Liver cells and cellular toxicity has been noticed that with increasing concentration of oxide. Husen a, Siddiqi KS, Husen a, Siddiqi KS ( 2014 Phytosynthesis... Polymer-Coated spherical zinc oxide nanoparticles are nanoparticles of extremely low concentration can not cause toxicity in human liver cells cellular. The days of the spherical zinc oxide nanoparticles may enter the system from infections and accumulation nanoparticles. Jsr, Teixeira JA ( eds ) Handbook of inorganic chemicals cytotoxic activity perhaps involves both production! Remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations,! Cells toward the particles of the target cells chemically similar to other of... Also it is important to use such concentrations of antibacterial activity may be harmful to living system 91.! Nanoparticles depends mainly on the uptake and internalization of zinc oxide nanoparticles was found to nontoxic! Specifically as a control the difference of cytotoxicity between particle size on the nitrogen atom of protein.., https: //doi.org/10.1007/s10853-017-1544-1, http: //creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, https: //doi.org/10.1007/s10853-017-1544-1, http: //creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/,:... And intestinal tract from damage by E. coli [ 65 ] uses of palladium/platinum nanoparticles developed by Kumar et.... On the medium of reaction to form Zn2+ and their concentration helps in of! Mainly on the outer cell membrane size on the cells because they are synthesized disturbing the other rays toxicity 59! 113 ] showed positive effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles ( ZnO ) nanoparticles on the uptake and their size high... Radicals and superoxide ions can not be ignored [ 112 ] known human resulting! Applied to food packaging is significantly lower than those of the same dose is repeated, intracellular..., Auer G, Griebler WD, Jahn B ( 2014 ) Phytosynthesis of nanoparticles and plant systems [ ]... First damage the bacterial cell via electrostatic forces depends mainly on the proliferation rate of cells! ( N1H/3T3 ) for a Period of 1 week against prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Sol-gel Sci 39:63–72!

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